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Plastics and polymers

Plastics and polymers
  • Plastics and polymers
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Plastics (plastic) - organic materials, which are based on synthetic or natural high molecular compounds (polymers). Extremely wide application of plastic based on synthetic polymers. The name "plastic" means that these materials under the action of heat and pressure can be formed and stored after cooling or curing predetermined shape. The molding process is accompanied by a transition of a plastically deformable (viscous) state to a glassy sostoyanie.V depending on the nature of the polymer and the nature of the transition from the glassy viscous state when molding articles of plastic divided into: - thermoplastics (thermoplastic plastic) - melt during heating and during cooling returned to its original state. - Thermosets (thermosetting plastics) - have higher operating temperatures, but when heated and destroyed during subsequent cooling does not restore its original properties. Also, gas-filled plastic - vspenёnnye plastics having a low density. Polymers (from the Greek. Polymeres - consists of many parts, varied), chemical compounds with high molecular weight (from a few thousand to many millions) molecules (macromolecules) consist of a large number of recurring groups (monomer units). The atoms that make up the macromolecules, connected to each other by the main and (or) the coordination valences. The main groups offered polymers: bulk plastics: Polyethylene (PE) polypropylene (PP) polypropylene (PP) stamp "LIPOL" ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and acrylic acid (EAA) IonomeryPlastomeryInzhenernye plastics: polycarbonate (PC) polyamides (PA) and polyphthalamides (PPA) Polifenilovye ethers (PPE) Styrenic polymers BASF® of: ABS plastic (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) plastic, ASA (acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate) ASA-plastic-plastic PCSAN + (styrene-acrylic-nitrile) SBS-plastic (styrene-butadiene-styrene) Polystyrene (PS, HIPS) Plastics rotational molding: Materials produced by Ico PolymersMetallotsenovye polyethylene for rotational molding by Total PetrochemicalsPolietilen for rotational molding the Exxon MobilTermoplastichnye materials: thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU) Termoplastelastomery (TPE) Polyurethane systems: Polyurethane elastomers hot otverzhdeniyaDobavki: Chalk dobavkaPoliizobutilenAntiblokAntistatikSkolzyaschaya dobavkaKompaundy and masterbatchiPPE poroshokPorofor UnicellKlassifikatsiya. By origin divided into natural polymers (biopolymers) such as proteins, nucleic acids, natural resins and synthetic, such as polyethylene, polypropylene, phenol-formaldehyde resins. Atom or atomic group may be arranged in the macromolecule in the form of an open circuit or a line length sequence cycles (linear polymers such as natural rubber); chain branching (branched polymers, e.g. amylopectin); a three-dimensional network (crosslinked polymers such as epoxy resin solidified). Polymers composed of the same monomer units are called homopolymers, such as polyvinyl chloride, polycaproamide, tsellyuloza.Svoystva and essential features. Linear polymers have a specific set of physical, chemical and mechanical properties. The most important of these properties: the ability to form highly oriented anisotropic high-strength fibers and films; capacity for large, long developing reversible deformations; the ability to swell in the rubbery state before dissolving; High-viscosity fluids. This combination of properties is due to high molecular weight, chain structure, and flexible macromolecules. In the transition from the linear to branched chains, rare three dimensional grids and finally to a thick net-like structure, this set of properties is becoming less pronounced. Highly crosslinked polymers are insoluble, infusible and incapable of highly elastic deformation. The polymers can exist in crystalline and amorphous states. The polymers come in the following types of basic reactions: formation of chemical bonds between macromolecules (m. N. Linking), for example in the vulcanization of rubber, leather tanning; disintegration of macromolecules into separate, shorter fragments; side reaction of the functional groups of polymers. low molecular weight substances do not affect the main chain of the (m. n. polymeranalogous conversion); intramolecular reactions taking place between the functional groups of a macromolecule, for example intramolecular tsiklizatsiya.Blagodarya valuable properties of polymers are used in mechanical engineering, textile industry, agriculture and medicine, automobile, shipbuilding and aircraft construction, in everyday life (textile and leather goods, tableware, glue, varnishes, jewelry and other items). On the basis of high-molecular compounds are made of rubber, fibers, plastics, films and coatings pokrytiya.Metod determine the type of plastic. (Compiled by Logvinenko VV) It is known that certain types of plastics peculiar to a particular set of indirect evidence, knowledge of which will help in the field of catches referred to the past, or other groups of polymers: color, texture, transparency, flexibility, elasticity, fracture character. The technique is simple and consists in analyzing the behavior of the sample in a plastic open fire, as well as accompanying the process of oxidation products (nature of combustion released by the smell, sound) .Vid polymer plastmassyPovedenie at nagrevaniiHarakter goreniyaZapah produktaRastvorimost aggressive sredahPrimechanieABS plastic (ABS-ABS) Strongly smokes - flakes of soot soar vverhGorit bright plamenemSladkovaty, tsvetochnyyRastvoryaetsya in solvents (acetone, benzene). Satisfactory, Satisfactory resistance to bending benzinuPri easily bends. Breaks with a sharp treskomPolistirol and styrene (PS, SAN-PS, SAN) softened, drawn in bright yellow nitiPlamya smoky similar ABSSladkovaty, tsvetochnyyRastvoryaetsya in solvents (acetone, benzene). Poor resistance to benzinuNa fracture observed grained strukturaPolikarbonat (PC-PC) softens plavitsyaZagoraetsya difficult, samopogashenie after removal of the flame softens koptitSilny floral plodovyyNe high resistance to organic solvents, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA-PMMA) softens plavitsyaGorit blue-luminous flame potreskivaniemOstry with a slight fruity odor (ether) dissolves easily in dihloretaneProzrachny, hrupkiyPolietilen (PE-PE) softens plavitsyaGorit calm bluish flame; with Dribble polimeraGoryaschey paraffin svechiPri room temperature is not soluble in organic rastvoritelyahDostatochno hard, floats in vodePolipropilen (PP-PP) melts and flows, becomes transparent, and at cooling mutneetYarko bluish glowing plamyaOstry and a sweet, burning wax or parafinaRazmyagchaetsya boiling vodePlavaet in vodePolivinilhlorid (PVC -PVC) difficultly, when passing from the flames samozatuhaetYarkaya bluish-greenish color at the base of the flame PLASTIC smokes and flames continued imposition of harsh goretOchen (hydrogen chloride) Soluble in dihloretaneElastichenPoliamidy (PA-PA) swells, "pshikat", drawn into filaments of rasplavaPlamya blue, lights up when removed from plameniGorelyh vegetables, burnt bone or volosaHoroshaya resistance in sulfuric kisloteVysokoe nefteproduktam.Rastvorim vlagopoglascheniePoliuretan (PU-TPU) gets dark, smokes, drains fatty kaplyamiPlamya glowing yellowish at the base goluboeOstry mindalnyyRastvorim in glacial acetic kisloteOchen flexible and elastic material, the cold - fragile

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